... The higher the magnification the longer the working distance.
No. exactly the other way: the higher the magnification, the shorter the working distances. As long as You are using just a single lens.
But with more than one lens You can control the working distance independent on the magnification.
Extreme examples: telescopes and microscopes. Both similar magnification, but quite different working distance. Photographic lenses for a given camera also have different magnification but a predetermined working distance (the distance from the lens to the film resp. sensor.
I don't think anyone can make high magnification loupes with shorter working distance. The same goes with stereo surgical scopes.
If You do not believe - test it. You can buy, e.g., 6X (telescope) loupes with 43 cm working distance and with 34 cm working distance.